Up to 10% of people with diphtheria die from complications.2
Risk areas for Diphtheria
Usually through inhaling infected droplets spread by coughing or sneezing.4 It is also transmitted prolonged close contact with someone infected with the bacteria which cause the disease, including sharing items such as cutlery, clothing or bedding.1
Common in many countries in Asia, the Middle East, eastern Europe, the Caribbean and the South Pacific (see map), while outbreaks have also been reported in other countries.1,4 The disease is more common in countries which do not offer routine vaccination.
The main symptom is a grey/white membrane (coating) in the throat which can lead to difficulty in breathing or swallowing.1,4 It can also cause fever, sore throat, nausea, headache and swollen glands in the neck.1
Severe diphtheria can cause difficulty breathing which can be fatal.4 There may also be serious effects on the heart and nervous system. It can require a stay in hospital and you may need to get prompt treatment with antibiotics and antitoxin.4
You can take the following precautions to help reduce your risk of infection:
- Visit your nearest convenient pharmacy or specialist travel health clinic for a risk assessment before your trip
- Wash your hands frequently, either with soap and water or alcohol-based sanitisers5
- Avoid contact with people who have symptoms of respiratory illness5
- Avoid sharing personal items such as eating and drinking utensils6
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- Conditions. Diphtheria. February 2018. Available online: http://www.nhs.uk/Conditions/Diphtheria/Pages/Introduction.aspx (Last accessed April 2019)
- World Health Organization. Immunization, Vaccines and Biologicals. Diphtheria. September 2018. Available online: https://www.who.int/immunization/diseases/diphtheria/en/ (Last accessed April 2019)
- World Health Organization. Immunization Monitoring. Diphtheria Reported Cases. September 2018. Available online: http://apps.who.int/immunization_monitoring/globalsummary/timeseries/tsincidencediphtheria.html (Last accessed April 2019)
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Yellow book 2018. Chapter 3 Infectious Diseases Related to Travel. Diphtheria. June 2017. Available online: https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2018/infectious-diseases-related-to-travel/diphtheria (Last accessed April 2019)
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Yellow book 2018. Chapter 2 The Pretravel Consultation. Respiratory Infections. May 2017.
Available online: https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/travel/yellowbook/2018/the-pre-travel-consultation/respiratory-infections (Last accessed April 2019)
- Health Service Executive (HSE) Ireland. Respiratory tract infection. Available online: https://www.hse.ie/eng/health/az/R/Respiratory-tract-infection/Preventing-respiratory-tract-infections.html (Last accessed April 2019)
UK-BOTB-1900029 June 2019